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Date of publication: 2017-08-26 18:39

The terminology of sequence stratigraphy, like most geologic terminology, is complex and constantly evolves as concepts and ideas change. [9] [65] It is the intent here to present a basic overview of the terminology to provide the reader with sufficient understanding to communicate with reservoir geologists. The classic Exxon model (see Fig. 9 ) shows the terminology used in siliciclastic stratigraphy. The terms used in carbonate stratigraphy, although similar, have important differences because carbonates are organic in origin and clastics are terrigenous in origin. The terminology used in carbonate stratigraphy is illustrated in Fig. 5.

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Dr. Shirey is a senior scientist in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution in Washington, DC. He is one of the world’s leading diamond geoscientists. Dr. Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at GIA in Carlsbad.

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Fig. 5 – Hierarchy of carbonate sequence-stratigraphic terminology in a cross-sectional view. An HFC is composed of a flooding event (transgression) and a shallowing event (prograding). HFSs are composed of a retrogradational cycle set that makes up the TST and prograding cycle set that makes up the HST. Composite sequences are composed of a basal retrogradational set of HFSs and an upper set of progradational HFSs/ The dark shading indicates transgressive units, and the light shading indicates progradational units. See Kerans and Tinker. [65]

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The extreme hardness of corundum makes it especially useful as an abrasive. Crushed corundum is processed to remove impurities and then screened to produce uniformly sized granules and powders. These are used for grinding media, polishing compounds, sand papers, grinding wheels, and other cutting applications.

These cycles are thought to cause changes in the Earth’s climate, resulting in more or less water trapped as ice at the poles. The trapping or release of water from the ice caps is thought to result in sea-level rise and fall, referred to as eustasy.

During primary development, the economic base of the reservoir is normally defined as the producing oil/water contact, or the level at which oil and water are first coproduced. This level is generally assumed to be at approximately 55% water saturation, according to relative permeability considerations. During tertiary development, the economic base of the reservoir may be defined as the level of zero oil saturation. However, because pore size can vary with stratigraphy, 55 or 655% water saturation may not occur at the same height throughout the reservoir. The economic base of the reservoir will not be horizontal.

Corundum's toughness, high hardness, and chemical resistance enable it to persist in sediments long after other minerals have been destroyed. This is why it is often found concentrated in alluvial deposits. These deposits are the most important source of rubies and sapphires in several parts of the world. Traditional sources of alluvial rubies and sapphires include Burma, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, India, Afghanistan, Montana, and other areas. In the past few decades, several parts of Africa, including Madagascar, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, and Malawi, have become important producers of ruby and sapphire.

Some problems with using natural corundum as an abrasive are that the deposits are usually small, irregular in shape, and the corundum is of variable quality. They are not reliable sources of consistent-quality material needed to run a manufacturing process. Synthetic corundum, produced using calcined bauxite , has become a more reliable source with more consistent properties. It has replaced natural corundum in most manufactured products.

Information that defines the external reservoir geometry is of primary importance during exploration and initial development of a reservoir. Such information includes:

The most important geologic information is the external geometry of the reservoir, defined by seals or flow barriers that inhibit the migration of hydrocarbons, forming a hydrocarbon trap. The buoyancy force produced by the difference in density between water and hydrocarbons drives migration. Migration will cease, and a hydrocarbon reservoir will form, only where hydrocarbons encounter a trap. Traps are composed of the following types of seals:

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